By Brian C. J. Moore
Hearing is a complete, authoritative reference paintings overlaying either the physiological and perceptual features of listening to. meant for researchers and complex scholars within the box of listening to, it experiences significant components of analysis as well as new discoveries, together with energetic mechanisms within the cochlea, across-channel strategies in auditory covering, and perceptual grouping processes.
- Covers either physiological and perceptual elements of hearing
- Authoritative experiences by way of specialists within the field
- Comprehensive updated coverage
- An built-in paintings with vast cross-references among chapters
Read Online or Download Hearing (Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition) PDF
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Extra info for Hearing (Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition)
C. Plane Waves The pressure wavefronts that radiate from a monopole source are spherical in shape. However, a receiver far away from the source does not notice this curvature of the wavefront. The wavefront seems to be a flat surface, just as the surface of the earth seems to be flat because we are so far away from the center. The flat wavefront is known as a plane wave. A plane wave is characterized only by its propagation direction. ) The pressure does not depend upon the other two directions of space.
If the signal is propagating as a plane wave (more about which later) then the rms velocity is related to the pressure by a simple proportionality: u = p/z, (18) where z is the specific acoustical impedance. This impedance is equal to the product of the air density and the speed of sound: z = av. 21 k g / m 3, and with a speed of sound of v = 344 m/s, the specific impedance is 415 kg/m2s or 415 rayls. 8 x 10 -s m/s. This is enormously slower than the rms velocity of air molecules due to the kinetic energy of thermal motion at room temperature, which is about 500 m/s.
We assert here that the frequency ~o(t) is the time derivative of the instantaneous phase of a sine. If the signal is x(t) = sin[O(t)], (99) then the instantaneous phase is O. ) It follows that the phase is the integral of the time-dependent frequency: O(t) = f t dt' co(t'). (100) In an FM signal, the instantaneous frequency consists of a constant carrier frequency, coc, plus a variation. If the variation is sinusoidal, with frequency OJm, then co(t) = oJ, + Ao~ COS((Omt+ ~). (101) Therefore, the phase is given by O(t) = coct + Aco sin(cOmt + cb).
Hearing (Handbook of Perception and Cognition, Second Edition) by Brian C. J. Moore