By Klaus Winter, J.Andrew C. Smith
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) represents one of many best-studied metabolic examples of an ecological variation to environmental rigidity. good over five % of all vascular plant species have interaction during this water-conserving photosynthetic pathway. Intensified study actions over the past 10 years have resulted in significant advances in knowing the biology of CAM vegetation.
New parts of analysis reviewed intimately during this ebook contain legislation of gene expression and the molecular foundation of CAM, the ecophysiology of CAM crops from tropical environments, the productiveness of agronomically vital cacti and agaves, the ecophysiology of CAM in submerged aquatic vegetation, and the taxonomic variety and evolutionary origins of CAM.
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Extra resources for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution
26). Far greater uncertainty exists regarding the number oreAM species in the Orchidaceae (Winter et al. 1983), a family thought to contain 19 500 species (Dressler 1993), of which about 73% are believed to be tropical epiphytes (Atwood 1986). If 50% of these tropical epiphytes were CAM species, this would give about 7000 CAM species in the Orchidaceae. Thus, in total, there could be approximately 16 000 species of CAM plants, corresponding to over 6 % of the estimated 260 000 species of vascular plants (Akeroyd and Synge 1992) - a much larger percentage than is represented by C 4 species, but a value that will almost certainly require revision as more extensive studies are performed on the Orchidaceae.
Fe,. :? • CAM ( -26 C3 I:. -30 -34 • ••• -• ,. l -22 ~ •• • 0 2 4 6 8 10 Leaf th ickness (mm) Fig. 3. Relationship between leaf thickness and 6 13 C value for tropical and subtropical species of epiphytic Orchidaceae from Australia. Those species in which leaf succulence is mainly attributable to a water-storage tissue that lacks chloroplasts (and hence does not participate in CAM) were not included. Darker shading denotes 6 13 C values indicating pronounced CAM; lighter shading includes 6 13 C values of plants in which dark CO 2 fixation contributes to a slight but measurable extent to total carbon gain.
The substrate for dark CO 2 fixation in CAM plants is PEP, which is derived from carbohydrates synthesized during daytime photosynthesis. As a consequence, carbohydrate levels change in a reciprocal manner to malic acid during the die! rhythm. However, CAM plants differ in the principal carbohydrate stored during the light period, some accumulating starch and others soluble sugars. Chapter 2 discusses the metabolic implications of these different forms of carbohydrate storage during the CAM cycle.
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution by Klaus Winter, J.Andrew C. Smith