By W.D. Newmark
Tanzania is likely one of the so much biologically varied international locations on this planet. touring from west to east throughout Tanzania, one encounters an enormous array of ecosystems and species. starting at Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Nyasa that shape a lot of the western boundary of Tanzania, one reveals the main varied and a few of the main stunning concentrations of endemic fish in any of the world's lakes. relocating extra inland from the lakes, one meets the woodlands and plains of Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Tarangire, and Lake Manyara. The assemblages and events of huge mammals in those secure components are extraordinary all over the world. touring but extra to the east, one involves Mount Kilimanjaro, the top mountain in Africa. Mount Kilimanjaro is of enough peak not to in basic terms comprise seven significant crops zones, but additionally continue everlasting glaciers. eventually, almost immediately earlier than arriving on the Indian Ocean, one encounters the japanese Arc Mountains, a sequence of remoted and geologically historic mountains, which as a result of their top and proximity to the Indian Ocean intercept adequate precipitation to help, in lots of parts, wet tropical woodland. The jap Arc Mountains are one of the richest websites biologically in all of Africa and harbor surprisingly excessive concentrations of endemic species - species whose geographic distribution are limited to those mountains. regrettably, a lot of Tanzania's biodiversity is threatened by way of habitat alteration, destruction, and exploitation. The jap Arc forests face one of the most serious threats to any of Tanzania's biologically precise sites.
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Additional info for Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests: A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains
The population in the West Usambara Mountains increased 23-fold from approximately 15,000 in 1900 (Heijnen 1974) to more than 357,000 in 1988 (Iversen 1991b). 9. Distribution ofland-use in the East Usambara Mountains. 0 Land-use The Eastern Arc Mountains and Their Biological Significance 27 Fig. 9. 10. Change in land-use in the Shume Ward in the West Usambara Mountains between 1957 and 1976. 10). Currently, average population density in the West Usambara is approximately 198 people per square kilometer (Feierman 1993), and many areas have densities greater than 400 people per square kilometer (Flueret 1979a; Kerkhof 1990).
Allanblackia stuhlmannii (Fig. 2) is found in the Usambara, Nguru, and Uluguru Mountains, while Trichilia roka grows throughout most of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Fruits of Allanblackia can weigh up to 7 kg and contain over 70 % extractable fat (Glendon 1946). During the German colonial era, a proposal was made, although not implemented, to establish Allanblackia plantations and commercialize the production of cooking fat, light-weight oils, and soap (Iversen 1991 a). In recent years, the General Agricultural Products Export Company (GAPEX) in Tanga, Tanzania, has purchased Allanblackia stuhlmannii fruits from villagers and extracted the oil.
1 Rodgers and Homewood (1982a); Hutterer et al. (1991); Pohjonen (2000). m Sywnnerton and Hayman (1951); Hutterer et al. (1991). n Sywnnerton and Hayman (1951); Stuart et al. (1990); Hutterer et al. (1991). D. Newmark with forests known to have unusually high tree species diversity in Uganda, Cameroon, and Sierra Leone. He ranked the Usambaras third among these four regions. Although being extremely species-rich, what many biologists find particularly striking about the Eastern Arc Mountains is the unusually high numbers of endemic species.
Conserving Biodiversity in East African Forests: A Study of the Eastern Arc Mountains by W.D. Newmark