By V.V Adushkin (Editor), I.V. Nemchinov (Editor)

ISBN-10: 1402064519

ISBN-13: 9781402064517

ISBN-10: 1402064527

ISBN-13: 9781402064524

An asteroid or comet will necessarily strike the Earth a few day, and in all probability reason nice destruction. This quantity considers risks because of collisions with cosmic gadgets, quite in gentle of contemporary investigations of affects by means of the authors. every one bankruptcy, written through knowledgeable, includes an outline of a side and new findings within the box. insurance describes and numerically estimates the most dangerous results.

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In the case of the CANNIKIN nuclear test conducted near a major fault (deep trench in the ocean), there were no substantial additional energy releases due to tectonic stresses; but the energy of this explosion is smaller than impact energies. There are great difficulties and uncertainties in the quantitative description of seismic waves even when a cosmic body hits the ground as a compact body. Impacts of bodies disrupted during their passage through the atmosphere present much greater uncertainties.

3 Spectrum of Seismic Signals All buildings, bridges, and other structures can vibrate with small amplitudes without being damaged. Every structure and element of a structure has many periods of vibration. For a majority of structures the most important is the longest one. The ground motion caused by an impact contains oscillations of many different frequencies. Short-period or high-frequency waves are absorbed by the ground more readily than lower frequencies. The greater the distance from a source, the larger is the fraction of a seismic signal remaining in the low-frequency part of a spectrum.

The sizes of high density and high-temperature areas at the Earth surface in 5 and 15 s are smaller than follow from Equation (13). The action of a shock wave produced in air by large impactors is less efficient than some other hazardous factors (discussed in the following). However, the fall back of ejecta can produce another shock wave and increase the pressure on the ground. Figure 4. Relative density (a) and temperature (b) distributions 5 s after the impact of a stony asteroid 10 km in diameter at a velocity of 20 km·s−1 22 Ivan Nemchinov et al.

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Catastrophic Events Caused by Cosmic Objects by V.V Adushkin (Editor), I.V. Nemchinov (Editor)

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