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Additional info for BRITISH STANDARD 6349-7: 1991, Code of practice for maritime structures, Part 7: Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters

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A high wave wall will be subjected to greater wave forces than other crest structures. In all cases a horizontal berm of underlayer sufficient for at least two armour units should be provided in front of the crest structure. For maximum resistance to sliding, the underside of the crest structure should be keyed into the underlying material: see Figure 12 for typical methods. 10 38 37 40 47 Source: [8] © BSI 04-1999 41 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 12 — Typical crest structures for rubble mound breakwaters 42 © BSI 04-1999 BS 6349-7:1991 In crest structures designed to minimize overtopping by reflecting waves to seaward, the increased reflection can cause stability problems at the top of the main armour.

When major overtopping is accepted the amount of wave transmission to the lee side may be estimated from Figure 8 and Figure 9 and reference may also be made to Powell and Allsop [22]. 28 Whilst preliminary design can be based on these methods, hydraulic model tests of the design section using irregular waves should be carried out for final design in cases where run-up and overtopping are important. 3 Overall stability The overall stability of a rubble mound breakwater involves both the structure and its foundation, and the effects of both static and dynamic loadings.

For example, increase in pore water pressure effectively reduces the angle of friction between particles and hence reduces the slope stability. Figure 10 shows significant failure modes of the various elements of a rubble mound breakwater. Settlement of the foundation will cause deformation of the whole structure. This can cause fracturing of some types of armour unit and failure of the armour layer. Settlement, even without adverse structural effects, increases the wave forces on the crest structure and the amount of overtopping.

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BRITISH STANDARD 6349-7: 1991, Code of practice for maritime structures, Part 7: Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters by British Standard

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