By Sanjay Dabral, Timothy J. Maloney
The 1st complete advisor to ESD defense and I/O designBasic ESD and I/O layout is the 1st booklet dedicated to ESD (electrostatic discharge) safeguard and input/output layout. Addressing the becoming call for in for high-speed I/O designs, it bridges the distance among ESD examine and present VLSI layout practices and gives a much-needed reference for training engineers who're often referred to as upon to benefit the topic at the job.This quantity offers an built-in remedy of ESD, I/O, and procedure parameter interactions that either I/O designers and strategy designers can use. It examines key elements in I/O and ESD layout and checking out, and is helping the reader contemplate ESD and reliability matters up entrance while making I/O offerings. Emphasizing readability and ease, this e-book specializes in layout ideas that may be utilized greatly as this dynamic box maintains to conform. simple ESD and I/O layout: * Describes innovations for design-oriented ESD safeguard * Explains structure tools that increase ESD defense designs * Addresses simple I/O designs, together with new difficulties corresponding to combined voltage interfaces * Discusses fabrication facets affecting ESD and I/O security * Illustrates techniques utilizing a number of figures and examples * Expresses equipment physics by way of basic electric circuit versions * Cross-references the cloth to plain texts within the fieldEssential for engineers in and an individual designing circuits, platforms, or units for destiny applied sciences, simple ESD and I/O layout is usually an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate scholars interested in middle VLSI layout or desktop structure.
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Extra info for Basic ESD and IO design
Interactions such as nonunifonn doping and heat generation defy analytical solutions, and simulation is necessary. These simulations can help predict where the second breakdown will be initiated and help optimize a device. It should be pointed out that if one were to base all protection on forwardbiased junctions, which dissipate less power/unit volume, then the second breakdown phenomena is largely avoided and these isothennal tools are of limited significance. 4. NON-BREAKDOWN DEViCES Non-breakdown devices are primarily diodes, MOSFET, and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs).
This device may be diode connected to form a clamp that triggers on only at high voltage and it is off at nonnal operating voltage. Even though this device operates in a conduction mode, it may suffer snapback. Here the thick gate oxide helps prevent oxide damage. The DIFIDW is different from a TFO primarily in its use of an N-well as the source and drain. This option was valid when little aluminum-to-silicon contact barriers were implemented. With barriers placed in the contacts, the necessity to have a deep N-well (to prevent aluminum spiking) has diminished and TFO devices are sufficient.
And a:2 [Yang, 1978J, as shown in Eq. 2-5. When the sum approaches 1, the current increases dramatically: (2-1) (2-2) (2-3) (2-4) (2-5) where a:l and a:2 are the current gain ofPNP and NPN transistors, respectively; and lc2 are the collector currents and leol and leo2 the reverse-biased col· lector currents of the NPN and PNP transistors, respectively. It is seen that as the sum ofa:j and a:2 tends to 1, I increases drastically. This is the case when the SCR latches up. This explains the latchup condition, but how does the SCR get initiated into latchup?
Basic ESD and IO design by Sanjay Dabral, Timothy J. Maloney