By Yuli You
Audio Coding: concept and functions presents succinct insurance of audio coding applied sciences which are regular in smooth audio coding criteria. brought from the point of view of an engineer, this booklet articulates how sign processing is utilized in the context of audio coding. It provides an in depth therapy of latest audio coding applied sciences after which makes use of the DRA audio coding regular as a realistic instance to demonstrate how a number of applied sciences are built-in right into a fully-fledged audio coding set of rules. Drawing upon years of useful event and utilizing various examples and illustrations Dr. Yuli You, offers an outline of useful audio coding applied sciences together with: • Designing high-performance algorithms that may be simply carried out on fixed-point or integer microprocessors. • find out how to safely enforce an audio decoder on a number of microprocessors. temporary detection and version of time-frequency solution of subband filters. • Psychoacoustic versions and optimum bit allocation. Audio Coding: concept and functions can be a helpful reference ebook for engineers within the patron electronics undefined, in addition to scholars and researchers in electric engineering.
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6. 19). 7. n/ where is a predetermined positive threshold. 8. Stop. 19). 21). There is a chance that, upon the completion of step 4, a Voronoi region may be empty in the sense that it contains not a single training vector. 20). This indicates that representative vector rq is an outlier that is far away from the training set. A simple approach to fixing this problem is to replace it with a training vector in the most popular Voronoi region. After the completion of the LBG algorithm, the resulting VQ codebook can be tested against a separate set of source data, referred to as the test set, that are drawn from the same source.
40 2 Scalar Quantization Fig. 11 The source sample value is first converted by the compressor into another one with a PDF similar to a uniform distribution. It is then quantized by a uniform quantizer and the quantization index is transmitted to the decoder. 5 −1 −1 Fig. 5 1 -Law companding deployed in North American and Japanese telecommunication The inverse function is called an expander because the inverse of compression is expansion. After the compression-expansion, hence “companding”, the effective decision boundaries when viewed from the expander output is nonuniform, so the overall effect is nonuniform quantization.
This also enables VQ to remove nonlinear dependencies in the data, a clear advantage over other technologies, such as transforms and linear prediction, which can only deal with linear dependencies. 5 Implementation Once the VQ codebook is obtained, it can be used to quantize the source signal that generates the training set. Similar to SQ, this also involves two stages as shown in Fig. 4. 50 3 Vector Quantization Fig. 4 VQ involves an encoding or forward VQ stage represented by “VQ” in the figure, which maps a source vector to a VQ index, and a decoding or inverse VQ stage represented by “VQ 1 ”, which maps a VQ index to its representative vector Fig.
Audio Coding: Theory and Applications by Yuli You