By Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts
Larsen (speech and listening to bioscience and know-how, Massachusetts Institute of expertise) and Aarts, a researcher within the deepest zone within the Netherlands, study purposes of bandwidth extension (BWE) to track and speech, putting specific emphasis on sign processing thoughts. overlaying idea, functions, and algorithms, they assessment vital recommendations in psychoacoustics, sign processing, and loudspeaker concept, and increase the speculation and implementation of BWE utilized to low-frequency sound replica, perceptually coded audio, speech, and noise abatement. an outline of a BWE patent is integrated. The e-book could be of curiosity to engineers, researchers, and postgraduate scholars in audio, sign processing, and speech.
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Additional info for Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design
9, which clearly shows the bandwidth limitation similar to a bandpass ﬁlter. 53) assuming an axis of symmetry at θ = 0 rad, where V is the velocity of the piston (Beranek , Kinsler et al. ), and J1 is a Bessel function, see Sec. 1. Assuming a velocity proﬁle as depicted in Fig. 9, we can calculate the magnitude of the on-axis response (θ = 0). This is also depicted in Fig. 9, which shows a ‘ﬂat’ SPL for ω ω0 . However, owing to the term in square brackets in Eq. 53, the off-axis pressure response (θ = 0) decreases with increasing ka.
77) 0 and is plotted in Fig. 14. 5]) H1 (z) = 2 π z4 z6 z2 − 2 2 + 2 2 2 −··· . 14 15 20 25 Plot of Struve function H1 (x) For the purpose of numerical computation, this series is only useful for small values of z. Eqns. 79) which is in agreement with the small ka approximation as can be found in the references given earlier, see also Fig. 12. 2 with ν = 1]). 80) but this is only useful for large values of z. Eqn. 64 and the ﬁrst term of Eqn. 81) which is in agreement with the large ka approximation, as can also be found in the earlier given references.
16 Cross section of the cochlea, showing the various membranes and cavities, and the organ of Corti. The hair cells are supported between the organ of Corti and the tectorial membrane, to which they are attached by stereocilia. The movement of the stereocilia, in response to sound entering the ear, causes a neural response, carried to the brain by the auditory nerve The mechanical properties of the BM vary across the length of the cochlea: the BM is widest and has the lowest compliance at the apex, thereby causing each portion of the BM to respond maximally to a speciﬁc frequency (this is somewhat dependent on signal level).
Audio Bandwidth Extension: Application of Psychoacoustics, Signal Processing and Loudspeaker Design by Erik Larsen, Ronald M. Aarts