By Milind Desai, Christine Jellis, Teerapat Yingchoncharoen
Valvular middle medication revolves round the have to thoroughly determine destinations of pathological constructions and/or the interventional instruments had to deal with that pathology. The imaging of the valves is constructing at a huge velocity and the clinician has to be conscious of the benefits of each one modality and the way it compares to the others to be had. there's a want for a pragmatic, scientific atlas designed to paintings the reader via situations and assessing the premier offerings on hand to physicians. This atlas will symbolize the whole multimodality imaging judgements wanted while assessing mitral valvular problems. inside of this atlas the authors could be providing a complete pictorial review of the hugely complicated pathology/treatment options and administration during this assorted staff of sufferers with diverse mitral valvular pathologies. Imaging modalities flow quickly representing problem to practitioners. This atlas will allow them to benefit the alternatives to be had and be good versed in ideas. it's going to for that reason be crucial analyzing for all cardiac imagers, surgeons, interventionalists, anesthetists and trainees in those disciplines.
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Extra resources for An Atlas of Mitral Valve Imaging
Noninvasive and invasive methods. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. Chan KL, Currie PJ, Seward JB, Hagler DJ, Mair DD, Tajik 2003;16:1292–300. American society of echocardiography. Dynamic echotion of pulmonary artery pressure. J Am Coll Cardiol. cardiography. 1st ed. Saunders/Elsevier: St. Louis; 2011. 1987;9:549–54. Baumgartner H, Hung J, Bermejo J, Chambers JB, Evangelista A, a clinical tool in search of theoretical justification. J Am Coll Griffin BP, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of valve stenosis: Cardiol.
2 Carpentier classification of mitral regurgitation Dysfunction Type I: Normal leaflet motion Type II: Increased leaflet motion (leaflet prolapse) Type IIIA: Restricted leaflet motion (restricted opening) Type IIIB: Restricted leaflet motion (restricted closure) Lesions Annular dilatation Annular deformation Leaflet perforation Chordal elongation Chordal rupture Papillary muscle elongation Papillary muscle rupture Leaflet thickening Leaflet retraction Chordal thickening Chordal retraction Chordal fusion Calcification Commissural fusion Ventricular fibrous plaque Leaflet tethering Papillary muscle displacement Ventricular dilatation Ventricular aneurysm Ventricular fibrous plaque Etiology Ischemic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy Endocarditis Degenerative mitral disease Fibroelastic deficiency Barlow’s disease Marfan’s disease Endocarditis Rheumatic disease Trauma Ischemic cardiomyopathy Rheumatic disease Carcinoid disease Ischemic cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy 22 Fig.
The E-F slope can be affected by other factors including cycle length, valvular calcification, and reduced left ventricular compliance. Because of the one- dimensional nature of M-mode imaging, a falsely normal E-F slope may be recorded if beam alignment is not maintained at the leaflet tips. M-mode imaging is also valuable for detection of systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the anterior mitral valve leaflet typically seen in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). In HOCM, a Venturi effect is created within the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), and the mitral valve apparatus is sucked into the LVOT during systole.
An Atlas of Mitral Valve Imaging by Milind Desai, Christine Jellis, Teerapat Yingchoncharoen