By Robin Hartshorne, C. Musili

ISBN-10: 3540051848

ISBN-13: 9783540051848

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**Extra resources for Ample Subvarieties of Algebraic Varieties**

**Example text**

Large N Duality and Integrality of Knot Invariants. Two parallel approaches were developed to integrality of knot invariants. The one coming from mathematics, due originally to Khovanov, introduced the idea of knot homology, revealing the fact that Chern-Simons knot invariants are actually Euler characteristics of certain complexes of vector spaces [4]. On the physical side, nearly simultaneously with Khovanov’s work, an explanation for this phenomenon was put forward in [34] . The physical explanation from [34] was based on the two duality relations, the large N duality relating SU (N ) Chern-Simons theory on the S 3 to the topological string on X = O(−1) ⊕ O(−1) → P1 , and the duality of the topological string on X with M-theory on (X × T N × S 1 )q .

39] M. C. N. Cheng, R. Dijkgraaf, C. 4573 [hep-th]]. [40] T. J. Hollowood, A. Iqbal, C. Vafa, “Matrix models, geometric engineering and elliptic genera,” JHEP 0803, 069 (2008). [hep-th/0310272]. [41] C. 2687 [hepth]]. [42] C. Beasley, “Remarks on Wilson Loops and Seifert Loops in Chern-Simons Theory,” AMS/IP Atud. Adv. Math. 5064. [43] L. F. Alday, D. Gaiotto, S. Gukov, Y. Tachikawa, H. Verlinde, “Loop and surface operators in N=2 gauge theory and Liouville modular geometry,” JHEP 1001, 113 (2010).

In addition to the this, IIA and M-theory have a common SU (2)R R-symmetry of a ﬁve-dimensional gauge theory. The branes we add preserve the U (1)r subgroup of the SU (2)r rotation group, for any M . For any M , setting q = t = q0 , the partition function of the M5 brane theory (19) equals the partition function of the D4 brane theory in this background ZD4 (T ∗ M, q0 ) = Tr (−1)F q0Q0 and both equal to the partition function of the ordinary SU (N ) Chern-Simons theory on M . In the D4 brane context, this was shown in [12] and studied further in [48] .

### Ample Subvarieties of Algebraic Varieties by Robin Hartshorne, C. Musili

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