By Jian Kang
Acoustics is an incredible challenge in lots of lengthy areas, equivalent to highway or railway tunnels, underground/railway stations, corridors, concourses and concrete streets. the explicit difficulties of such irregularly formed areas, starting from noise toxins in streets and tunnels to terrible speech intelligibility of public tackle structures in railway stations will not be handled by means of vintage room acoustic theory.
This state of the art exposition of acoustics of lengthy areas provides the basics of acoustic thought and calculation formulae for lengthy areas in addition to giving guidance for functional layout
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Extra info for Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance
Methods for the calculation of the articulation index. 5. ANSI, 1997. HOUTGAST T. and STEENEKEN H. J. M. The modulation transfer function in room acoustics as a predictor of speech intelligibility. Acustica, 1973, 28, 66ÿ73. , STEENEKEN H. J. M. and PLOMP R. Predicting speech intelligibility in rooms from the modulation transfer function I. General room acoustics. Acustica, 1980, 46, 60ÿ72. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 23 STEENEKEN H. J. M. and HOUTGAST T. A physical method for measuring speechtransmission quality.
The modulation transfer function in room acoustics as a predictor of speech intelligibility. Acustica, 1973, 28, 66ÿ73. , STEENEKEN H. J. M. and PLOMP R. Predicting speech intelligibility in rooms from the modulation transfer function I. General room acoustics. Acustica, 1980, 46, 60ÿ72. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 23 STEENEKEN H. J. M. and HOUTGAST T. A physical method for measuring speechtransmission quality. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1980, 67, 318ÿ326. HOUTGAST T. and STEENEKEN H.
3. 2 are applicable to long spaces with acoustically smooth boundaries. If there are irregularities on boundaries, diuse 48 ACOUSTICS OF LONG SPACES re¯ections should be taken into account. 21]. It is assumed that the sound energy re¯ected from a boundary is dispersed over all directions according to the Lambert cosine law, namely, I l $ cos l , where l is the angle between the boundary normal and a re¯ection. 1. The main steps of this model are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) divide each boundary into certain amount of patches; distribute the sound energy of an impulse source to the patches Ð the patches can then be regarded as sound sources, which are called ®rstorder patch sources below; determine the form factors between pairs of patches; re-distribute the sound energy of each ®rst-order patch source to every other patch and, thus, generate the second-order patch sources Ð continue this process and the kth order patch sources can be obtained (k 1 F F F I); this process is `memory-less', that is, the energy exchange between patches depends only on the form factors and the patch sources of the preceding order; and calculate the energy response at each receiver by considering all orders of patch sources, from which the acoustic indices can be derived.
Acoustics of long spaces : theory and design guidance by Jian Kang